About some hardware machining
By shumijia | 20 October 2021 | 0 Comments

Five-axis machining, not just one more axis of four

Five-axis machining center, is a kind of high technology, high precision, specifically for processing complex surface machining center, this kind of machining center system has a pivotal influence on a country's aviation, navigation, military, scientific research, precision instruments, high-precision medical equipment and other industries.

A. What is a five-axis machining center
Five-axis simultaneous machining has the characteristics of high efficiency and high precision, and the workpiece can complete complex processing in one clamping. It can adapt to the processing of molds like auto parts, aircraft structural parts and so on now. There is a big difference between five-axis machining center and five-face machining center. Many people do not know this, mistaking the five-axis machining center as a five-axis machining center. Five-axis machining center has X, Y, Z, A, C five axes, XYZ and AC axis to form a five-axis linkage processing, good at space surface processing, shaped processing, hollowing processing, punching, oblique holes, miter cut, etc.. The "five-axis machining center" is similar to the three-axis machining center, except that it can do five surfaces at the same time, but it cannot do shaped machining, such as punching bevel holes, cutting bevels, etc.
In addition, the five-axis machining center is very wide range of applications, it is understood that the current five-axis CNC machining center system is the only means to solve the impeller, blade, marine propeller, heavy generator rotor, automotive machine wheels, large diesel engine crankshaft and so on processing.
Second, the advantages of five-axis machining center
So what are the advantages of five-axis machining?
① Reduce processing time and improve processing accuracy.
The biggest feature of five-axis machining center is that a one-time clamping can be processed on all five sides. It is also known as the processing angle avoidance. If it is a linkage machine, the C-axis is able to rotate without restriction and the A-axis can do about 130 degrees of rotation. These machine features allow machining without interference.
The advantage of this is that machining can be done in one clamping, i.e. avoiding the repeated positioning errors caused by multiple clamping. It also saves a lot of time and increases efficiency. It can reduce the time from product to shipment and reduce the amount of stock in the warehouse.

②Reducing the investment cost of equipment, the area occupied by the workshop and the number of workshops.
Five-axis machining center around the composite machining machine, usually with T (car) function, from even from lathe to milling machine to vertical grinding can be included in, we all know that the current price of vertical grinding equipment is very expensive, through the cost, processing beat and other accounting can be found five-axis cost-effective. Previously, we may produce and process mainly with engineering split type, the problem of such production method is that there is a large amount of waiting time can not be eliminated. But the five-axis composite machining equipment represented by the engineering intensive production only need to wait for the initial commissioning time, and with the current popularity of various types of domestic machine simulation software, and even just need to import the blank data to complete the programming, but also can greatly reduce the preliminary preparation. Therefore, the current foreign auto parts and high-end manufacturing are basically based on five-axis.

③No special fixtures are needed and can be automated.
Another significant feature of five-axis is that the dependence on fixtures will be reduced. The regular workpiece can be clamped directly with three-jaw and four-jaw chucks, and the irregular workpiece can be clamped with two pins on one side. At the same time, five-axis machining center can realize the automation and less humanization of the factory. For example, the joints and bases of processing robots. Previously, it was a combination of horizontal and vertical machining, but now it only needs to use the zero-point pallet with the five-axis machining center to realize 24-hour operation and machining.
Processing examples
3.1: Case of effective reduction of product machining time
This is a case of turning and milling composite parts, which can be shipped in just one day. According to the original processing method using the machining center, the process needs to be turned over at least three times and takes 2~3 days to complete.

3.2: Example of machining time reduction by composite machining center
This is about the process improvement of crankshaft trial production: large steel parts, which are customized parts, so the quantity is not large. According to the previous traditional process, it took about two months for the batch to be finished from forgings. But using the composite processing machine only one can be shaped, and finally only need to be put into the crankshaft grinding machine to complete the last process.

3.3: Proximity machining method to avoid interference
This is a case of machining a differential case. The previous machining solution for turning the inner sphere was to use a special tool, which required a person to manually insert the tool and then pull the tool holder over for installation. However, if we use five axes, we can use common tools directly, and there is no need to manually insert the tool, the machine can insert it automatically, including the clamping time can be reduced by half. But the machining accuracy is improved, and the effect is also very significant in terms of cost reduction of custom tools.
Previously, we had contact with a group of valve parts, the internal structure is similar to the differential housing, the internal is very complex. Not only need machining center to process each direction, to cope with the eccentric parts need to create the process step clamping first, and then wash it away, long time and material waste.

3.4: Example of engineering intensification
This is another means of processing. We all know that the traditional sense of the turning process inserts have been contact inserts. And this process can be called milling turning. This process is milled by power head and the spindle rotates at a uniform speed. The advantage of this type of machining is that it effectively keeps the insert temperature down. And the chip removal system of the milling process is better. For example, when we came into contact with Q295D steel, we found that the iron chips were very sticky and could not be discharged properly, which affected the normal process. And this processing means can perfectly circumvent such a problem.

Fourth, the technology recommended - torque motor
Over the past 20 years, direct drive torque motors have significantly improved the performance of many applications, including a large number of high-tech industry applications. For the processing of eccentric parts, five or six years ago in Foxconn has been in use, they are used for the cell phone case turning process. The use of linear motors combined into a non-standard lathe to do so.
Today direct drive technology is seen as the preferred solution to meet the high productivity, high precision and high dynamic performance of modern machines. The basic meaning of a linear drive system is that the load is directly connected to the motor, i.e. the motor "directly drives" the load. Higher rigidity and more compact mechanisms are just a few of the outstanding advantages of this technology. In addition to these features, torque motors can reduce maintenance costs, simplify machine construction, eliminate wear and tear, and reduce maintenance.
And in the future, linear motors will have higher and higher torque, and machines will no longer even need to rely on screws. For future product cost, quality and process, there will be a big improvement.

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